## Sigma resonance again

29/05/2009

José Pelaéz and Guillermo Rìos published today a paper on arxiv (see here). The argument is an understanding of the nature of $\sigma$ and $\kappa$ resonances. The technique they use is Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) but the idea is to see the behavior of the amplitudes at increasing number of colors. They get again a confirmation that the very nature of $\sigma$ is not a typical $\bar qq$ state. Rather, a subdominant $\bar qq$ component is seen at larger energies with larger values of the number of colors. This conclusion  agrees with our theorem proved here.

The current situation forces the authors to prudence. They do not draw any conclusion about the real nature of $\sigma$ and $\kappa$ but their results still appear impressive. These authors have a long file of very good works about the quest for an understanding of the lower part of QCD spectrum and they have given the mass and the width of $\sigma$  with really increased precision. They belong to a group headed by Paco Yndurain. You can find a tribute to Paco by Stephan Narison here.

From my view you can see this as another confirmation to the idea that $\sigma$ is a glueball and the lowest state of a pure Yang-Mills theory. This evidence is becoming overwhelming but other interpretations are not ruled out yet. The fact that $\kappa$ or else f0(980) are glueballs would give further strong support to this as I expect a glueball state at this value of energy.

## A review on proton spin

29/05/2009

As you may know, there is a lot of experimental activity to understand as the spin of the proton can arise from its components, i.e. quarks and gluons. The great difficulties we have to manage low-energy QCD makes this problem fundamental toward an improved comprehension of this limit. In arxiv today an interesting review by Steven Bass is appeared (see here and here). Bass gives a brief  overview of the current situation mostly from the experimental side. As reader from this blog may know (see here), glue contribution to spin is about zero and the proton spin appears mostly due to valence quarks and their interplay with vacuum. Indeed this is Bass’ conclusion and we fully agree with it.

The emerging scenario is really striking. It appears that QCD behavior in a non-perturbative regime goes completely off known tracks. This implies that there is a lot of problems to be solved in the future for us working in this field.