As you may know, there is a lot of experimental activity to understand as the spin of the proton can arise from its components, i.e. quarks and gluons. The great difficulties we have to manage low-energy QCD makes this problem fundamental toward an improved comprehension of this limit. In arxiv today an interesting review by Steven Bass is appeared (see here and here). Bass gives a brief overview of the current situation mostly from the experimental side. As reader from this blog may know (see here), glue contribution to spin is about zero and the proton spin appears mostly due to valence quarks and their interplay with vacuum. Indeed this is Bass’ conclusion and we fully agree with it.
The emerging scenario is really striking. It appears that QCD behavior in a non-perturbative regime goes completely off known tracks. This implies that there is a lot of problems to be solved in the future for us working in this field.