They did it!

11/02/2016

ResearchBlogging.org

This is a great moment in history of physics: Gravitational waves were directly detected by the merging of two black holes by the LIGO Collaboration. This is a new world we arrived at and there will be a lot to be explored and understood. I do not know if it is for the direct proof of existence of gravitational waves or black holes that fixes this great moment forever in the memory of mankind. But by today we have both!

You can find an excellent recount here. This is the paper

LIGO's PRL

 

Thank you for this great work!

Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Abbott, T., Abernathy, M., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R., Adya, V., Affeldt, C., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allocca, A., Altin, P., Anderson, S., Anderson, W., Arai, K., Arain, M., Araya, M., Arceneaux, C., Areeda, J., Arnaud, N., Arun, K., Ascenzi, S., Ashton, G., Ast, M., Aston, S., Astone, P., Aufmuth, P., Aulbert, C., Babak, S., Bacon, P., Bader, M., Baker, P., Baldaccini, F., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S., Barayoga, J., Barclay, S., Barish, B., Barker, D., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Barton, M., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Batch, J., Baune, C., Bavigadda, V., Bazzan, M., Behnke, B., Bejger, M., Belczynski, C., Bell, A., Bell, C., Berger, B., Bergman, J., Bergmann, G., Berry, C., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Bhagwat, S., Bhandare, R., Bilenko, I., Billingsley, G., Birch, J., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Bisht, A., Bitossi, M., Biwer, C., Bizouard, M., Blackburn, J., Blair, C., Blair, D., Blair, R., Bloemen, S., Bock, O., Bodiya, T., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Bogan, C., Bohe, A., Bojtos, P., Bond, C., Bondu, F., Bonnand, R., Boom, B., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, S., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P., Braginsky, V., Branchesi, M., Brau, J., Briant, T., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brisson, V., Brockill, P., Brooks, A., Brown, D., Brown, D., Brown, N., Buchanan, C., Buikema, A., Bulik, T., Bulten, H., Buonanno, A., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R., Cabero, M., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Bustillo, J., Callister, T., Calloni, E., Camp, J., Cannon, K., Cao, J., Capano, C., Capocasa, E., Carbognani, F., Caride, S., Diaz, J., Casentini, C., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cavalier, F., Cavalieri, R., Cella, G., Cepeda, C., Baiardi, L., Cerretani, G., Cesarini, E., Chakraborty, R., Chalermsongsak, T., Chamberlin, S., Chan, M., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chassande-Mottin, E., Chen, H., Chen, Y., Cheng, C., Chincarini, A., Chiummo, A., Cho, H., Cho, M., Chow, J., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, S., Chung, S., Ciani, G., Clara, F., Clark, J., Cleva, F., Coccia, E., Cohadon, P., Colla, A., Collette, C., Cominsky, L., Constancio, M., Conte, A., Conti, L., Cook, D., Corbitt, T., Cornish, N., Corsi, A., Cortese, S., Costa, C., Coughlin, M., Coughlin, S., Coulon, J., Countryman, S., Couvares, P., Cowan, E., Coward, D., Cowart, M., Coyne, D., Coyne, R., Craig, K., Creighton, J., Creighton, T., Cripe, J., Crowder, S., Cruise, A., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Cuoco, E., Canton, T., Danilishin, S., D’Antonio, S., Danzmann, K., Darman, N., Da Silva Costa, C., Dattilo, V., Dave, I., Daveloza, H., Davier, M., Davies, G., Daw, E., Day, R., De, S., DeBra, D., Debreczeni, G., Degallaix, J., De Laurentis, M., Deléglise, S., Del Pozzo, W., Denker, T., Dent, T., Dereli, H., Dergachev, V., DeRosa, R., De Rosa, R., DeSalvo, R., Dhurandhar, S., Díaz, M., Di Fiore, L., Di Giovanni, M., Di Lieto, A., Di Pace, S., Di Palma, I., Di Virgilio, A., Dojcinoski, G., Dolique, V., Donovan, F., Dooley, K., Doravari, S., Douglas, R., Downes, T., Drago, M., Drever, R., Driggers, J., Du, Z., Ducrot, M., Dwyer, S., Edo, T., Edwards, M., Effler, A., Eggenstein, H., Ehrens, P., Eichholz, J., Eikenberry, S., Engels, W., Essick, R., Etzel, T., Evans, M., Evans, T., Everett, R., Factourovich, M., Fafone, V., Fair, H., Fairhurst, S., Fan, X., Fang, Q., Farinon, S., Farr, B., Farr, W., Favata, M., Fays, M., Fehrmann, H., Fejer, M., Feldbaum, D., Ferrante, I., Ferreira, E., Ferrini, F., Fidecaro, F., Finn, L., Fiori, I., Fiorucci, D., Fisher, R., Flaminio, R., Fletcher, M., Fong, H., Fournier, J., Franco, S., Frasca, S., Frasconi, F., Frede, M., Frei, Z., Freise, A., Frey, R., Frey, V., Fricke, T., Fritschel, P., Frolov, V., Fulda, P., Fyffe, M., Gabbard, H., Gair, J., Gammaitoni, L., Gaonkar, S., Garufi, F., Gatto, A., Gaur, G., Gehrels, N., Gemme, G., Gendre, B., Genin, E., Gennai, A., George, J., Gergely, L., Germain, V., Ghosh, A., Ghosh, A., Ghosh, S., Giaime, J., Giardina, K., Giazotto, A., Gill, K., Glaefke, A., Gleason, J., Goetz, E., Goetz, R., Gondan, L., González, G., Castro, J., Gopakumar, A., Gordon, N., Gorodetsky, M., Gossan, S., Gosselin, M., Gouaty, R., Graef, C., Graff, P., Granata, M., Grant, A., Gras, S., Gray, C., Greco, G., Green, A., Greenhalgh, R., Groot, P., Grote, H., Grunewald, S., Guidi, G., Guo, X., Gupta, A., Gupta, M., Gushwa, K., Gustafson, E., Gustafson, R., Hacker, J., Hall, B., Hall, E., Hammond, G., Haney, M., Hanke, M., Hanks, J., Hanna, C., Hannam, M., Hanson, J., Hardwick, T., Harms, J., Harry, G., Harry, I., Hart, M., Hartman, M., Haster, C., Haughian, K., Healy, J., Heefner, J., Heidmann, A., Heintze, M., Heinzel, G., Heitmann, H., Hello, P., Hemming, G., Hendry, M., Heng, I., Hennig, J., Heptonstall, A., Heurs, M., Hild, S., Hoak, D., Hodge, K., Hofman, D., Hollitt, S., Holt, K., Holz, D., Hopkins, P., Hosken, D., Hough, J., Houston, E., Howell, E., Hu, Y., Huang, S., Huerta, E., Huet, D., Hughey, B., Husa, S., Huttner, S., Huynh-Dinh, T., Idrisy, A., Indik, N., Ingram, D., Inta, R., Isa, H., Isac, J., Isi, M., Islas, G., Isogai, T., Iyer, B., Izumi, K., Jacobson, M., Jacqmin, T., Jang, H., Jani, K., Jaranowski, P., Jawahar, S., Jiménez-Forteza, F., Johnson, W., Johnson-McDaniel, N., Jones, D., Jones, R., Jonker, R., Ju, L., Haris, K., Kalaghatgi, C., Kalogera, V., Kandhasamy, S., Kang, G., Kanner, J., Karki, S., Kasprzack, M., Katsavounidis, E., Katzman, W., Kaufer, S., Kaur, T., Kawabe, K., Kawazoe, F., Kéfélian, F., Kehl, M., Keitel, D., Kelley, D., Kells, W., Kennedy, R., Keppel, D., Key, J., Khalaidovski, A., Khalili, F., Khan, I., Khan, S., Khan, Z., Khazanov, E., Kijbunchoo, N., Kim, C., Kim, J., Kim, K., Kim, N., Kim, N., Kim, Y., King, E., King, P., Kinzel, D., Kissel, J., Kleybolte, L., Klimenko, S., Koehlenbeck, S., Kokeyama, K., Koley, S., Kondrashov, V., Kontos, A., Koranda, S., Korobko, M., Korth, W., Kowalska, I., Kozak, D., Kringel, V., Krishnan, B., Królak, A., Krueger, C., Kuehn, G., Kumar, P., Kumar, R., Kuo, L., Kutynia, A., Kwee, P., Lackey, B., Landry, M., Lange, J., Lantz, B., Lasky, P., Lazzarini, A., Lazzaro, C., Leaci, P., Leavey, S., Lebigot, E., Lee, C., Lee, H., Lee, H., Lee, K., Lenon, A., Leonardi, M., Leong, J., Leroy, N., Letendre, N., Levin, Y., Levine, B., Li, T., Libson, A., Littenberg, T., Lockerbie, N., Logue, J., Lombardi, A., London, L., Lord, J., Lorenzini, M., Loriette, V., Lormand, M., Losurdo, G., Lough, J., Lousto, C., Lovelace, G., Lück, H., Lundgren, A., Luo, J., Lynch, R., Ma, Y., MacDonald, T., Machenschalk, B., MacInnis, M., Macleod, D., Magaña-Sandoval, F., Magee, R., Mageswaran, M., Majorana, E., Maksimovic, I., Malvezzi, V., Man, N., Mandel, I., Mandic, V., Mangano, V., Mansell, G., Manske, M., Mantovani, M., Marchesoni, F., Marion, F., Márka, S., Márka, Z., Markosyan, A., Maros, E., Martelli, F., Martellini, L., Martin, I., Martin, R., Martynov, D., Marx, J., Mason, K., Masserot, A., Massinger, T., Masso-Reid, M., Matichard, F., Matone, L., Mavalvala, N., Mazumder, N., Mazzolo, G., McCarthy, R., McClelland, D., McCormick, S., McGuire, S., McIntyre, G., McIver, J., McManus, D., McWilliams, S., Meacher, D., Meadors, G., Meidam, J., Melatos, A., Mendell, G., Mendoza-Gandara, D., Mercer, R., Merilh, E., Merzougui, M., Meshkov, S., Messenger, C., Messick, C., Meyers, P., Mezzani, F., Miao, H., Michel, C., Middleton, H., Mikhailov, E., Milano, L., Miller, J., Millhouse, M., Minenkov, Y., Ming, J., Mirshekari, S., Mishra, C., Mitra, S., Mitrofanov, V., Mitselmakher, G., Mittleman, R., Moggi, A., Mohan, M., Mohapatra, S., Montani, M., Moore, B., Moore, C., Moraru, D., Moreno, G., Morriss, S., Mossavi, K., Mours, B., Mow-Lowry, C., Mueller, C., Mueller, G., Muir, A., Mukherjee, A., Mukherjee, D., Mukherjee, S., Mukund, N., Mullavey, A., Munch, J., Murphy, D., Murray, P., Mytidis, A., Nardecchia, I., Naticchioni, L., Nayak, R., Necula, V., Nedkova, K., Nelemans, G., Neri, M., Neunzert, A., Newton, G., Nguyen, T., Nielsen, A., Nissanke, S., Nitz, A., Nocera, F., Nolting, D., Normandin, M., Nuttall, L., Oberling, J., Ochsner, E., O’Dell, J., Oelker, E., Ogin, G., Oh, J., Oh, S., Ohme, F., Oliver, M., Oppermann, P., Oram, R., O’Reilly, B., O’Shaughnessy, R., Ott, C., Ottaway, D., Ottens, R., Overmier, H., Owen, B., Pai, A., Pai, S., Palamos, J., Palashov, O., Palomba, C., Pal-Singh, A., Pan, H., Pan, Y., Pankow, C., Pannarale, F., Pant, B., Paoletti, F., Paoli, A., Papa, M., Paris, H., Parker, W., Pascucci, D., Pasqualetti, A., Passaquieti, R., Passuello, D., Patricelli, B., Patrick, Z., Pearlstone, B., Pedraza, M., Pedurand, R., Pekowsky, L., Pele, A., Penn, S., Perreca, A., Pfeiffer, H., Phelps, M., Piccinni, O., Pichot, M., Pickenpack, M., Piergiovanni, F., Pierro, V., Pillant, G., Pinard, L., Pinto, I., Pitkin, M., Poeld, J., Poggiani, R., Popolizio, P., Post, A., Powell, J., Prasad, J., Predoi, V., Premachandra, S., Prestegard, T., Price, L., Prijatelj, M., Principe, M., Privitera, S., Prix, R., Prodi, G., Prokhorov, L., Puncken, O., Punturo, M., Puppo, P., Pürrer, M., Qi, H., Qin, J., Quetschke, V., Quintero, E., Quitzow-James, R., Raab, F., Rabeling, D., Radkins, H., Raffai, P., Raja, S., Rakhmanov, M., Ramet, C., Rapagnani, P., Raymond, V., Razzano, M., Re, V., Read, J., Reed, C., Regimbau, T., Rei, L., Reid, S., Reitze, D., Rew, H., Reyes, S., Ricci, F., Riles, K., Robertson, N., Robie, R., Robinet, F., Rocchi, A., Rolland, L., Rollins, J., Roma, V., Romano, J., Romano, R., Romanov, G., Romie, J., Rosińska, D., Rowan, S., Rüdiger, A., Ruggi, P., Ryan, K., Sachdev, S., Sadecki, T., Sadeghian, L., Salconi, L., Saleem, M., Salemi, F., Samajdar, A., Sammut, L., Sampson, L., Sanchez, E., Sandberg, V., Sandeen, B., Sanders, G., Sanders, J., Sassolas, B., Sathyaprakash, B., Saulson, P., Sauter, O., Savage, R., Sawadsky, A., Schale, P., Schilling, R., Schmidt, J., Schmidt, P., Schnabel, R., Schofield, R., Schönbeck, A., Schreiber, E., Schuette, D., Schutz, B., Scott, J., Scott, S., Sellers, D., Sengupta, A., Sentenac, D., Sequino, V., Sergeev, A., Serna, G., Setyawati, Y., Sevigny, A., Shaddock, D., Shaffer, T., Shah, S., Shahriar, M., Shaltev, M., Shao, Z., Shapiro, B., Shawhan, P., Sheperd, A., Shoemaker, D., Shoemaker, D., Siellez, K., Siemens, X., Sigg, D., Silva, A., Simakov, D., Singer, A., Singer, L., Singh, A., Singh, R., Singhal, A., Sintes, A., Slagmolen, B., Smith, J., Smith, M., Smith, N., Smith, R., Son, E., Sorazu, B., Sorrentino, F., Souradeep, T., Srivastava, A., Staley, A., Steinke, M., Steinlechner, J., Steinlechner, S., Steinmeyer, D., Stephens, B., Stevenson, S., Stone, R., Strain, K., Straniero, N., Stratta, G., Strauss, N., Strigin, S., Sturani, R., Stuver, A., Summerscales, T., Sun, L., Sutton, P., Swinkels, B., Szczepańczyk, M., Tacca, M., Talukder, D., Tanner, D., Tápai, M., 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X., Wang, Y., Ward, H., Ward, R., Warner, J., Was, M., Weaver, B., Wei, L., Weinert, M., Weinstein, A., Weiss, R., Welborn, T., Wen, L., Weßels, P., Westphal, T., Wette, K., Whelan, J., Whitcomb, S., White, D., Whiting, B., Wiesner, K., Wilkinson, C., Willems, P., Williams, L., Williams, R., Williamson, A., Willis, J., Willke, B., Wimmer, M., Winkelmann, L., Winkler, W., Wipf, C., Wiseman, A., Wittel, H., Woan, G., Worden, J., Wright, J., Wu, G., Yablon, J., Yakushin, I., Yam, W., Yamamoto, H., Yancey, C., Yap, M., Yu, H., Yvert, M., Zadrożny, A., Zangrando, L., Zanolin, M., Zendri, J., Zevin, M., Zhang, F., Zhang, L., Zhang, M., Zhang, Y., Zhao, C., Zhou, M., Zhou, Z., Zhu, X., Zucker, M., Zuraw, S., Zweizig, J., & , . (2016). Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger Physical Review Letters, 116 (6) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102

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Water on the Moon!

13/11/2009

NASA announced today that LCROSS has indeed found water on the moon and in a significant quantity. The announcement is here.

402518main_LCROSS_results3_full

The view of the floor of Cabeus as seen through the LCROSS near-infrared camera. The fresh crater made by the Centaur impact is indicated. Credit: NASA

This is a wonderful result both for the achievement and the technique NASA used. The meaning for the future explorations in space is made brighter by this finding and the reason is that, having significant reserves of water on the moon, building a base for future missions in the solar system is made easier. So, in a situation where funding cuts are the most common actions governments accomplish, such a successful mission proves that smart people always find a way toward the aims. On the other side, we hope that, when economical difficulties in US will be overcome, NASA will be again properly funded to realize the most significant goals in space missions.


Evidence for dark matter from PAMELA

02/04/2009

Two lines to point out this paper, appeared in the latest number of Nature, coming from PAMELA Collaboration. This project is directed by Piergiorgio Picozza. He has been my professor of nuclear physics at Rome University La Sapienza (but all my mistakes about are my own responsability…). pamelaPAMELA is a satellite that is orbiting Earth since 1023 days to date (you can find a counter on PAMELA’s site) and is gathering data about cosmic radiation. They have found an enhanced production of positrons. In this last paper they reach the relevant conclusion that this excess may come from dark matter through an annihilation process. This appears a significant evidence for the existence of this exotic matter that we expect to be produced at LHC in the next months as the consequences of the accident happened last year will be definitively fixed. Let me say that I find PAMELA exceedingly sexy as what she is saying to us is really exciting.


Most extreme gamma-ray blast yet

20/02/2009

As my blog’s readers know, I follow as far as I can space missions that can have a deep impact on our knowledge of universe. Most of them are from NASA. One of these missions is Fermi-GLAST that has produced a beautiful result quite recently.  glastIt has seen the greatest gamma-ray burst ever (see here). The paper with the results is appeared on Science (see here). The burst was seen in Carina constellation.  These explosions are the most energetic processes in the universe and were uncovered by chance with military satellites named Vela used to find nuclear explosions in the atmosphere in the sixties of the last century. Understanding gamma-ray bursts implies a deeper understanding of stellar explosions.


New evidence for dark energy

18/12/2008

Chandra X-ray observatory has given new evidence of the existence of dark energy. This striking result has been obtained with the observation of Abell 85. This is a galaxy cluster located about 740 million light years from Earth.

darkenergy

I have found another beautiful article on NewYork Times about (see here). Dark energy is currently described by a non-null cosmological constant in the Einstein equations but no explanation is known whatsoever about its origin. Currently, a famous explanation uses the anthropic principle but was criticized by Steven Weinberg (see here). This argument seems to support very strongly the landscape view of string theory but whatever relies on anthropic arguments cannot be said to be really satisfactory for our understanding. So, physicists are looking for something better but nothing is in view. Rather, quantum field theory gives a too large account for this constant. As this is a major breakthrough in our understanding of universe, it is a serious reason to stay tuned waiting for more information.


First photo of an exoplanet

14/11/2008

I think that is worthwhile to put here this first photo of an exoplanet. This is the result of a joint effort of three research groups, one of them using Hubble of course. Here is the photo

exoplanet

but this is more explicative (via Corriere della Sera)

piane_pop1

A fine article about, as always on Physics World, can be found here.


Ice on Mars

01/08/2008

All newspapers today give this beautiful news: There is ice on Mars and this was the results of analysis by NASA Phoenix Mars Lander.

Mars as seen by Phoenix Mars Lander

Mars as seen by Phoenix Mars Lander

I have read this article from New York Times and I think next step would be the search for life, very elementary life. Indeed, looking at pictures from Mars it does not come as a surprise that water existed in liquid form on the planet time ago and Mars should have had a very different aspect. But it is also possible that life existed at that time and now it is completely disappeared. There has been a temporal window inside which some kind of evolution took place but all depends on the width of the window to define the complexity of such organisms. Anyhow, having such a large reservoir of water should make a manned mission on Mars easier in the future.

Due to the large success and to a wide availability of resources, NASA planned to extend this mission further. Please, folks do not give up the good work!


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